|The above from Robert Anton Wilson's "The Illuminati Papers"|
Yang - Positive/active/male principle in nature, symbolized by the sun… sunlit orientation ie: south side of a hill or north bank of a river. Overt… masculine, exposed, obvious, open, belonging to this world.
Traditionally and throughout history, humans have maintained a notion that Manifest Universe demonstrates dynamic ebb and flow that is dichotomous in nature. Yin/yang, light/darkness, observer/observed, etc. The very act of being born into Universe requires the accommodation of dualism. Appropriately, in the first half of our examination of an apparent dualistic Universe, we will explore the overt properties of such.
The Western term dualism was originally coined to denote co-eternal binary opposition, a meaning that is contextualized within metaphysical and philosophical duality. Within the last millennium or two, the concept of dualism has expanded into other usages to simply indicate a system which contains two essential parts. This cosmology is essentially a doctrine of universally opposing principles… of two irreducible elements, expressed as: light v darkness, creation v destruction, attraction v repulsion, benevolence v malevolence, good v evil… hope v despair.
In philosophy of mind, dualism is a view about the relationship between mind and matter which claims that mind and matter are two ontologically separate categories. Mind-body dualism claims that neither the mind nor matter can be reduced to each other in any way. Western dualist philosophical traditions (as exemplified by Descartes) equate mind with the conscious self and theorize on consciousness on the basis of mind/body dualism. By contrast, some Eastern philosophies draw a metaphysical line between consciousness and matter — where matter includes both body and mind.
In philosophy of science, dualism often refers to the dichotomy between the "subject" (the observer) and the "object" (the observed). Another dualism, in Popperian philosophy of science refers to "hypothesis" and "refutation" (for example, experimental refutation). This notion also carried to Popper's political philosophy.
In physics, dualism also refers to media with properties that can be associated with the mechanics of two different phenomena. Because these two phenomena's mechanics are mutually exclusive, both are needed in order to describe the possible behaviors. An example of using two different physical models to describe one phenomenon is wave–particle duality.
The above may be considered a short primer on how Western or Scientific Thought views the concept of dualism. It would embody an overt, materialistic, mechanistic view of Universe. In our next installment, we will pursue the covert, obscure, esoteric understanding of dualism, typified by Eastern Thought...